In effect, Huxley and Isherwood (joined soon afterwards by Thomas Mann and his daughter Elisabeth Mann Borghese) laid the foundations during the late 1930s and the 1940s for the later LSD culture, by recruiting a core of "initiates" into the Isis cults that Huxley's mentors, Bulwer-Lytton, Blavatsky, and Crowley, had constituted while stationed in India.
LSD: 'Visitation from the Gods'"
Ironically," writes Ferguson,
"the introduction of major psychedelics like LSD, in the 1960s, was largely attributable to the Central Intelligence Agency's investigation into the substances for possible military use. Experiments on more than eighty college campuses, under various CIA code names, unintentionally popularized LSD. Thousands of graduate students served as guinea pigs. Soon they were synthesizing their own 'acid.' "9
The CIA operation was code named MK-Ultra, its result was not unintentional, and it began in 1952, the year Aldous Huxley returned to the United States.
According to a 1962 Rand Abstract, W.H. McGlothlin conducted a preparatory study on "The Long-Lasting Effects of LSD on Certain Attitudes in Normals: An Experimental Proposal." The following year, McGlothlin conducted a year-long experiment on thirty human guinea pigs, called "Short-Term Effects of LSD on Anxiety, Attitudes and Performance." The study concluded that LSD improved emotional attitudes and resolved anxiety problems.12
Huxley At Work
Watts at the same time founded the Pacifica Foundation, which sponsored two radio station WKBW in San Francisco and WBM-FM in New York City. The Pacifica stations were among the first to push the "Liverpool Sound" -- the British-imported hard rock twanging of the Rolling Stones, the Beatles, and the Animals. They would later pioneer "acid rock" and eventually the self-avowed psychotic "punk rock."
Kesey subsequently organized a circle of "SD initiates called "The Merry Pranksters." They toured the country disseminating SD" (often without forewarning the receiving parties), building up local distribution connections, and establishing the pretext for a high volume of publicity on behalf of the still minuscule "counterculture."
The Free Clinic paralleled a project at the Tavistock Institute, the psychological warfare agency for the British Secret Intelligence Service. Tavistock, founded as a clinic in London in the 1920s, had become the Psychiatric Division of the British Army during World War II under its director, Dr. John Rawlings Rees.16
During the 1960s, the Tavistock Clinic fostered the notion that no criteria for sanity exist and that psychedelic "mind-expanding" drugs are valuable tools of psychoanalysis. In 1967, Tavistock sponsored a Conference on the "Dialectics of Liberation," chaired by Tavistock psychoanalyst Dr. R.D. Laing, himself a popularized author and advocate of drug use. That conference drew a number of people who would soon play a prominent role in fostering terrorism; Angela Davis and Stokely Carmichael were two prominent American delegates.
'The Beating of Drums . . .
'In 1963, the Beatles arrived in the United States, and with their decisive airing on the Ed Sullivan Show, the "British sound" took off in the U.S.A. For their achievement, the four rocksters were awarded the Order of the British Empire by Her Majesty the Queen. The Beatles and the Animals, Rolling Stones, and homicidal punk rock maniacs who followed were, of course, no more a spontaneous outpouring of alienated youth than was the acid culture they accompanied.
The social theory of rock was elaborated by musicologist Theodor Adorno, who came to the United States in 1939 to head the Princeton University Radio Research Project.17 Adorno writes:
"In an imaginary but psychologically emotion-laden domain, the listener who remembers a hit song will turn into the song's ideal subject, into the person for whom the song ideally speaks. At the same time, as one of many who identify with that fictitious subject, that musical I, he will feel his isolation ease as he himself feels integrated into the community of "fans." In whistling such a song he bows to a ritual of socialization, although beyond this unarticulated subjective stirring of the moment his isolation continues unchanged . . . The comparison with addiction is inescapable. Addicted conduct generally has a social component: it is one possible reaction to the atomization which, as sociologists have noticed, parallels the compression of the social network. Addiction to music on the part of a number of entertainment listeners would be a similar phenomenon."18
The hit parade is organized precisely on the same principles used by Egypt's Isis priesthood and for the same purpose: the recruitment of youth to the dionysiac counterculture.
In a report prepared for the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research, Paul Hirsch described the product of Adorno's Radio Research Project.19 According to Hirsch, the establishment of postwar radio's Hit Parade "transformed the mass medium into an agency of sub-cultural programming. Radio networks were converted into round-the-clock recycling machines that repeated the top forty hits." Hirsch documents how all popular culture -- movies, music, books, and fashion -- is now run on the same program of preselection. Today's mass culture operates like the opium trade: The supply determines the demand.
The Vietnam War and the Anti-Vietnam War Trap
But without the Vietnam War and the "anti-war" movement, the Isis cult would have been contained to a fringe phenomenon -- no bigger than the beatnik cult of the 1950s that was an outgrowth of the early Huxley ventures in California. The Vietnam War created the climate of moral despair that opened America's youth to drugs.
Under Kennedy, American military involvement in Vietnam -- which had been vetoed by the Eisenhower administration -- was initiated on a limited scale. Under Lyndon Johnson, American military presence in Vietnam was massively escalated, at the same time that U.S. efforts were restricted -- the framework of "limited war." Playing on the President's profile, the anglophile Eastern Establishment, typified by top White House national security aide McGeorge Bundy and Defense Secretary Robert McNamara, convinced President Johnson that under the nuclear "balance of terror," or the regime of Mutual and Assured Destruction, the United States could afford neither a political solution to the conflict, nor the commitment to a military victory.
The outcome of this debacle was a major strategic withdrawal from Asia by the United States, spelled out in Henry Kissinger's "Guam Doctrine," adoption of the spectacular failure known as the "China Card" strategy for containing Soviet influence, and demoralization of the American people over the war to the point that the sense of national pride and confidence in the future progress of the republic was badly damaged.
Just as Aldous Huxley began the counterculture subversion of the United States thirty years before its consequences became evident to the public, Lord Bertrand Russell began laying the foundations for the anti-war movement of the 1960s before the 1930s expired. Russell's "pacifism" was always relative -- the means to his most cherished end, one-world government on the imperial model, that would curb the nation-state and its persistent tendency toward republicanism and technological progress.
Lord Russell and Aldous Huxley cofounded the Peace Pledge Union in 1937 campaigning for peace with Hitler-just before both went to the United States for the duration of World War.20 During World War II, Lord Russell opposed British and American warfare against the Nazis. 1111947, when the United States was in possession of the atomic bomb and Russia was not, Russell loudly advocated that the United States order the Soviets to surrender to a one-world government that would enjoy a restrictive monopoly on nuclear weapons, under the threat of a preemptive World War III against the Soviet Union. His 1950s "Ban the Bomb" movement was directed to the same end-it functioned as an anti-technology movement against the peace-through-economic development potentials represented by President Eisenhower's "Atoms for Peace"' initiative.
From the mid-1950s onward, Russell's principal assignment was to build an international anti-war and anti-American movement. Coincident with the escalation of U.S. involvement in Vietnam under British manipulation, Russell upgraded the old Peace Pledge Union (which had been used in West Germany throughout the postwar period to promote an anti-capitalist "New left" wing of the Social Democratic Party, recruiting several future members of the Baader-Meinhof terrorist gang in the process) into the Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation.
In the United States, the New York banks provided several hundred thousand dollars to establish the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS), effectively the U.S. branch of the Russell Peace Foundation. Among the founding trustees of the IPS was James Warburg, directly representing the family's interests.
IPS drew its most active operatives from a variety of British-dominated institutions. IPS founding director Marcus Raskin was a member of the Kennedy administration's National Security Council and also a fellow of the National Training Labs, a U.S. subsidiary of the Tavistock Institute founded by Dr. Kurt Lewin.
After its creation by the League for Industrial Democracy, Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), the umbrella of the student anti-war movement, was in turn financed and run through IPS -- up through and beyond its splintering into a number of terrorist and Maoist gangs in the late 1960s.21 More broadly, the institutions and outlook of the U.S. anti-war movement were dominated by the direct political descendants of the British-dominated "socialist movement" in the U.S.A., fostered by the House of Morgan as far back as the years before World War!.
This is not to say that the majority of anti-war protesters were paid, certified British agents. On the contrary, the overwhelming majority of anti-war protesters went into SDS on the basis of outrage at the developments in Vietnam. But once caught in the environment defined by Russell and the Tavistock Institute's psychological warfare experts, and inundated with the message that hedonistic pleasure-seeking was a legitimate alternative to "immoral war," their sense of values and their creative potential went up in a cloud of hashish smoke.
Now, fifteen years later, with nearly an entire generation of American youth submerged in the drugs that flooded the nation's campuses, the Aquarian Conspiracy's Marilyn Ferguson is able to write: "There are legions of [Aquarian] conspirators. They are in corporations, universities, and hospitals, on the faculties of public schools, in factories and doctors' offices, in state and federal agencies, on city councils, and the White House staff, in state legislatures, in volunteer organizations, in virtually all arenas of policy making in the country."22
Like the British inundation of China with drugs in the nineteenth century, the British counterculture has succeeded in. subverting the fabric of the nation, even up to the top-most levels of government.
In 1962, Huxley helped found the Esalen Institute in Big Sur, California, which became a mecca for hundreds of Americans to engage in weekends of T-Groups and Training Groups modeled on behavior group therapy, for Zen, Hindu, and Buddhist transcendental meditation, and "out of body" experiences through simulated and actual hallucinogenic drugs.23
As described in the Esalen Institute Newsletter: "Esalen started in the fall of 1962 as a forum to bring together a wide variety of approaches to enhancement of the human potential . . . including experiential sessions involving encounter groups, sensory awakening, gestalt awareness training, related disciplines. Our latest step is to fan out into the community at large, running programs in cooperation with many different institutions, churches, schools, hospitals, and government."24
Esalen's nominal founders were two transcendental meditation students, Michael Murphy and Richard Price, both graduates of Stanford University. Price also participated in the experiments on patients at Bateson's Palo Alto Veterans Hospital. Today Esalen's catalogue offers: T-Groups; Psychodrama Marthon; Fight Training for Lovers and Couples; Religious Cults; LSD Experiences and the Great Religions of the World; Are You Sound, a weekend workshop with Alan Watts; Creating New Forms of Worship; Hallucinogenic Psychosis; and Non-Drug Approaches to Psychedelic Experiences.
Several tens of thousands of Americans have passed through Esalen; millions have passed through the programs it has sired throughout the country.
The next leap in Britain's Aquarian Conspiracy against the United States was the May 1974 report that provided the basis for Ferguson's work. The report is entitled "Changing Images of Man," Contract Number URH (489~215O, Policy Research Report No. 414.74, prepared by the Stanford Research Institute Center for the Study of Social Policy, Willis Harman, director. The 319-page mimeographed report was prepared by a team of fourteen researchers and supervised by a panel of twenty-three controllers, including anthropologist Margaret Mead, psychologist B.F. Skinner, Ervin Laszlo of the United Nations, Sir Geoffrey Vickers of British intelligence.
The aim of the study, the authors state, is to change the image of mankind from that of industrial progress to one of "spiritualism." The study asserts that in our present society, the "image of industrial and technological man" is obsolete and must be "discarded":
"Many of our present images appear to have become dangerously obsolete, however . . . Science, technology, and economics have made possible really significant strides toward achieving such basic human goals as physical safety and security, material comfort and better health. But many of these successes have brought with them problems of being too successful -- problems that themselves seem insoluble within the set of societal value-premises that led to their emergence . . . Our highly developed system of technology leads to higher vulnerability and breakdowns. Indeed the range and interconnected impact of societal problems that are now emerging pose a serious threat to our civilization . . . If our predictions of the future prove correct, we can expect the association problems of the trend to become more serious, more universal and to occur more rapidly."
Therefore, SRI concludes, we must change the industrial-technological image of man fast:
"Analysis of the nature of contemporary societal problems leads to the conclusion that . . . the images of man that dominated the last two centuries will be inadequate for the post-industrial era."
Since the writing of the Harman report, one President of the United States, Jimmy Carter, reported sighting UFOs his National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski made speeches proclaiming the advent of the New Age, the Joint Chiefs of Staff every morning read so-called intelligence reports on the biorhythms and horoscopes of the members of the Soviet Politburo. The House of Representatives established a new congressional committee, called the Congressional Clearinghouse on the Future, where the likes of Ferguson have come to lecture up to a hundred congressmen.25
What began as Britain's creation of the counterculture to open the market for its dope has come a long way.
The LSD ConnectionWho provided the drugs that swamped the anti-war movement and the college campuses of the United States in the late 1960s? The organized crime infrastructure which had set up the Peking Connection for the opium trade in 1928 -- provided the same services in the 1960s and 1970s it had provided during Prohibition. This was also the same network Huxley had established contact with in Hollywood during the 1930s. The LSD connection begins with one William "Billy" Mellon Hitchcock. Hitchcock was a graduate of the University of Vienna and a scion of the millionaire Mellon banking family of Pittsburgh. (Andrew Mellon of the same family had been the U.S. Treasury Secretary throughout Prohibition.) In 1963, when Timothy Leary was thrown out of Harvard, Hitchcock rented a fifty-five-room mansion in Millbrook, New York, where the entire Leary-Huxley circle of initiates was housed until its later move back to California.26
Hitchcock was also a broker for the Lansky syndicate and for the Fiduciary Trust Co., Nassau, Grand Bahamas --- a wholly owned subsidiary of Investors Overseas Services. He was formally employed by Delafield and Delafield Investments, where he worked on buying and selling vast quantities of stock in the Mary Carter Paint Co., soon to become Resorts International.
In 1967, Dr. Richard Alpert put Hitchcock in contact with Augustus Owsley Stanley III. As Owsley's agent, Hitchcock retained the law firm of Babinowitz, Boudin and Standard 27 -- to conduct a feasibility study of several Caribbean countries to determine the best location for the production and distribution of LSD and hashish.
During this period, Hitchcock joined Leary and his circle in California. Leary had established an LSD cult called the Brotherhood of Eternal Love and several front companies, including Mystics Art World, Inc. of Laguna Beach, California. These California-based entities ran lucrative trafficking in Mexican marijuana and LSD brought in from Switzerland and Britain. The British connection had been established directly by Hitchcock, who contracted the Charles Bruce chemical firm to import large quantities of the chemical components of LSD with financing from both Hitchcock and George Grant Hoag, the heir to the J.C. Penney dry goods fortune, the Brotherhood of Eternal Love set up LSD and hashish production-marketing operations in Costa Rica in 1968. 28
Toward the end of 1968, Hitchcock expanded the LSD-hashish production operations in the Caribbean with funds provided by the Fiduciary Trust Co. (IOS). In conjunction with J. Vontobel and Co. of Zurich, Hitchcock founded a corporation called 4-Star Anstalt in Liechtenstein. This company, employing "investment funds" (that is, drug receipts) from Fiduciary Trust, bought up large tracts of land in the Grand Bahamas as well as large quantities of ergotamine tartrate, the basic chemical used in the production of LSD.29
Hitchcock's personal hand in the LSD connection abruptly ended several years later. Hitchcock had been working closely with Johann F. Parravacini of the Parravacini Bank Ltd in Berne, Switzerland. From 1968, they had together funded even further expansion of the Caribbean-California LSD-hashish ventures. In the early 1970s, as the result of a Securities and Exchange Commission investigation, both Hitchcock and Parravacini were indicted and convicted of a $40 million stock fraud. Parravacini had registered a $40 million sale to Hitchcock for which Hitchcock had not put down a penny of cash or collateral. This was one of the rare instances in which federal investigators succeeded in getting inside the $200 billion drug fund as it was making its way around the "offshore" banking system.
Another channel for laundering dirty drug money -- a channel yet to be compromised by federal investigative agencies is important to note here. This is the use of tax-exempt foundations to finance terrorism and environmentalism. One immediately relevant case makes the point.
In 1957, the University of Chicago's Robert M. Hutchins established the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions (CSDI) in Santa Barbara, California. Knight Commander Hutchins drew in Aldous Huxley, Elisabeth Mann Borghese, and some Rhodes Scholars who had originally been brought into the University of Chicago during the 1930s and 1940s.
The CSDI was originally funded 1957 to 1961 through a several-million-dollar fund that Hutchins managed to set up before his untimely departure from the Ford Foundation. From 1961 onward, the Center was principally financed by organized crime. The two funding conduits were the Fund of Funds, a tax exempt front for Bernie Cornfeld's lOS, and the Parvin Foundation, a parallel front for Parvin-Dohnnan Co. of Nevada. IOS and Marvin-Doorman held controlling interests in the Desert Inn, the Aladdin, and the Dune -- all Las Vegas casinos associated with the Lansky syndicate. IOS, as already documented, was a conducting vehicle for LSD, hashish, and marijuana distribution throughout the 1960s.30 In 1967 alone, IOS channeled between $3 and $4 million to the center.
Wherever there is dope, there is Dope, Inc.
Marilyn Ferguson, The Aquarian Conspiracy (Los Angeles: J.P. Archer, 1980), p.19. Paul Ghalioungui, The House of Life: Magic and Medica' Science in Ancient Egypt (New York: Schram Enterprises, 1974). Arnold Toynbee, A Study of History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1935). Martin Green, Children of the Sun: A Narrative of Decadence in England after 1918 (New York: Basic Books, 1976). See Ronald William Clark, The Huxleys (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968). H.G. Wells, Anticipations of the Reaction of Mechanical and Scientific Progress Upon Human Life and Thought (New York: Harper and Row, 1902), p.285. Helena P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, A Master Key to the Mysteries of Ancient and Modern Science and Theology (Los Angeles: Theosophy Co., 1931). Francis King, Sexuality, Magic and Perversion (New York: Citadel, 1974), p.118. Ferguson, Aquarian Conspiracy, p. 126n. Institute for Policy Studies, "The First Ten Years, 1963-1973," Washington, D.C., 1974. Humphrey Osmund, Understanding Understanding (New York: Harper and Row, 1974). Rand Corporation Catalogue of Documents. Gregory Bateson, Steps to the Ecology of the Mind (New York: Chandler, 1972). Ralph Metzner, The Ecstatic Adventure (New York: Macmillan, 1968). See Clark, The Huxleys. Michael Minnicino, "Low Intensity Operations: The Reesian Theory of War," The Campaigner (April 1974). Theodor Adorno was a leading professor of the Frankfurt School of Social Research in Germany, founded by the British Fabian Society. A collaborator of twelve-tone formalist and British intelligence operative Arnold Schoenberg, Adorno was brought to the United States in 1939 to head the Princeton Radio Research Project. The aim of this project, as stated in Adorno's Introduction to the Sociology of Music, was to program a mass "musical" culture that would steadily degrade its consumers. Punk rock is, in the most direct sense, the ultimate result of Adorno's work. Theodor Adorno, Introduction to the Sociology of Music (New York: Seabury Press, 1976). Paul Hirsch, "The Structure of the Popular Music Industry; The Filtering Process by which Records are Preselected for Public Consumption," Institute for Social Research's Survey Research Center Monograph, 1969. Ronald Clark, The Life of Bertrand Russell (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1976), p.457. Illinois Crime Commission Report, 1969. The Institute for Policy Studies (IPS) was established in 1963 by Marcus Raskin, a former National Security Adviser under NSC Director McGeorge Bundy, and by Richard Barnet, a former State Department adviser on arms control and disarmament. Among the board of trustees of IPS were Thurmond Arnold, James Warburg, Philip Stern, and Hans Morgenthau, with seed money from the Ford Foundation (later to be headed by McGeorge Bundy). IPS has functioned as the "New left" think tank and control center for local community control, community health centers, and direct terrorist organizations. In its report "The First Ten Years," the Institute lists among its lecturers and fellows, members of the Weathermen group, and known associates of the Japanese Red Army, the Puerto Rican terrorist Armed Forces of National Liberation (FALN), and the Black Liberation Army.
Executive Intelligence Review
See also Carter and the Party of international Terrorism, Special Report by the U.S. Labor Party, August, 1976. Ferguson, Aquarian Conspiracy, p.24. Criton Zoakos et al., Stamp Out the Aquarian Conspiracy, Citizens for LaRouche monograph, New York, 1980, pp. 60-63.